Revised Original Border Notes V 2.0


This is a retype of my original dance mss but without the tunes or the abbreviations and made more readable. These notes were made available in the mid 60's before the term "Border Morris" was coined by Dr Cawte, when it still appeared that there were simple dances involving heys which were more widespread than the Cotswold Morris and possibly older in concept. Sharp saw a relationship but also thought its performance style degenerate. Some of my subsequent notes and comments have been added and are distinguished by being like this, in italics. Each of the basic "traditional" dances has inspired numerous interpretations and some are mentioned.

One must not judge all morris by the yardstick of the Cotswold dance which after all is only one flower on the folk tree. Any custom is only as elaborate as is necessary to fill the need which occasions it in its community. The emphases may be different. A simplicity of step may be compensated for by a variety of figure from dance to dance, or by an elaboration of costume, even to the point of fancy dress, or by an increase in the impressiveness of the noise, either by using a band or percussion instruments such as tambourines and bones. This balancing should be borne in mind when presenting "Other Morris" to the morris world or to the public.

The intrusion of country dance elements into the morris outside of the Cotswolds is largely a myth. Molly dancing includes triple minor longways dances as whole sets, and two of the Winster dances are recognisably community dances, but in general the morris lacks the physical contact, the partner response and the figure movements, particularly the progression, of the social dance. It is the experience of most collectors that ordinary people equate morris and country dance music and movements. This and an ignorance of the existing `traditions probably led to this widespread misapprehension.




HEADINGTON QUARRY - Oxfordshire. col. C Sharp and R. Kenworthy Schofield.

Music :

Kimber's tune for the Morris Reel he called "The Bold Huzzar". He also used a version of "Soldier's Joy". No handkerchiefs were used in this dance,

Travelling Step - this was a quiet morris step based on 3 running steps and a hop. He used the ordinary hand movements, without handkerchiefs, but rather milder in effort than was usual for Headington Quarry.

Reel Step - it is similar to the stationary "polka" step of Morpeth Rant and similar country dances. On the first beat of a bar the ball (or heel) of the free foot is tapped on the ground in front of the other foot. Schofield remarked that the toe was well turned out as it is tapped. Sharp noted that the legs were well crossed and the toe of the front foot well pointed. In the reel part the arms are `a Kimbo` (but not in the Swedish fashion) with the hands on hips, and the fingers pointing to the front. "For you see you dance with your waist, not anything else".


Reel for Six :- stand with all six facing up. There is no once-to-yourself.

A continuous reel is danced twice through (16 bars), started progressively, the tops casting out and going behind the 2nd couple and between the 3rd. Partners face and "reel-step-with-toes" (8 bars). Partners change places across the set passing by the right, using the same reel step (8 bars). Hey as before, twice through, now on the other side of the set (16 bars). Partners face and reel step with toes again (8 bars). Partners change back as before using the reel-step-with-toes (8 bars)

Repeat all, but using the heel in the reel stepping.

End with a final hey done once through and finish with an "all-up".

Reel for Four :- stand in a line facing up.

When the music starts Nos. 1 and 3 cast to their left and start the hey-for-four by passing Nos. 2 and 4 by the left. Dance two complete heys to get back to places and end with Nos. 1 facing 2, 3 facing 4. (16 bars) Dance reel-step-with-toes on the spot (8 bars), and in the 8th bar Nos. 2 and 3 change places by casting to their right. The next 8 bars start with No. 1 facing No. 3 etc.

The next hey is started by Nos. 1 and 3, 2 and 4 passing by the right. In the next reel-step-with-toes Nos, 2 and 3 again cast to their right in bar 8 to go back to their original places.

Then repeat the heys and the reel but with the reel-step-with-heels. End with single hey and a jump to finish all facing up.

Reel for Three :- stand in a line of three facing up.

A hey for three, No 1 casts to the left and passes No. 2 by the left. No. 1 faces down and No. 3 faces up throughout the reel stepping, while No. 2 first faces No. 1 and then in bar 8 turns to face No. 3.

The second hey starts by No. 2 passing No. 3 by the right.

In the next reel stepping No. 2 faces No. 3 first and then No. 1,

and the next hey starts by Nos. I and 2 passing by the right.

The dance ends with a single hey and finishes with all facing up.

I am not aware of this dance being regularly performed by anv modern morris side except Mary Ireson's team at Farnham/Alton in the early 1960s.


UPTON SNODSBURY - Worcestershire. col. M Karpeles,

This is a three handed reel with heys and stick tapping. They did some kind of stepping throughout the dance. In the stick tapping the middle man tapped alternately with the men on either side of him.

Three handed dances are a challenge to make them interesting to watch. The Paradise Islanders and Shropshire Bedlams have such dances. The latter's has been developed further into 5 and 9 men reels. Elsewhere the performance of versions of the dance appear to have been influenced by the various step dance reels. Another source version, this time collected off a TV show in the mid 1950's, was the so called `East Acton Stick Dance` as danced by the Cheam Morris from Railway Cuttings.



Music :

At Mitcheldean

- "Cock O'the North", "Flowers of Edinburgh".


At Bromsberrow

- "Three Handed Reel" (ED&S Sept t959 p 94) and a version of the Evesham stick dance tune.

Sticks : about 30" long and stout.


Called the THREE HANDED REEL as performed by three pairs of dancers.

Stick dance - start in one line of six facing in pairs 1-2, 3-4, 5-6.

All shoulder sticks and walk or "march" a complete reel to the first part of the tune played twice (16 bars). End facing in pairs as at the start.

Then caper vigorously on alternate feet on the spot, clashing the stick tips alternately forehand and backhand on each caper for the second part of the tune played once through only (8 bars).

This sequence is done ad lib with the tempo getting faster at each repeat. The leader called "Off'." for the reel and "Set'." for the clashing.

Note that there are 12 passings in 32 steps for the reel. including the turns at the ends on ones own, and the phrasing gives difficulties to dancers who would expect either 2 or 4 steps per passing, not 2 1/2.

Stepping Dance - this is as the stick dance in the hey. At Mitcheldean the stepping just replaced the sticking. At Bromsberrow the stepping was done facing the partner for 8 bars and then repeated by the partners with their backs to each other for 8 bars.

This has proved to some sides to be a great getting the audience to join in dance. To avoid the problem of what happens when reaching the end of the line in the reel, the Farnborough Morris have had it danced in a circle so that there is no end to confuse the newcomers, nor anything magical about the numbers able to join in! Other teams have developed the six hand reel format by adding other figures and examples have been recorded from Alton Morris and Hook Eagles.


STEEPLE CLAYDON - Buckinghamshire. col. C Sharp

Music : Only one tune was played by Inwood - "Old Mother Oxford"

Clapping Dance - start in a line, facing in pairs 1-2, 3- 4, and 5-6.

Dance a straight hey, called a "double", ending up as at the start.

The normal morris step - Inwood danced with great vitality and spring for a man of 77, throwing his leg further and therefore higher than morris men are normally used to doing and keeping them very nearly straight, though his hip joints were wonderfully loose and flexible.

Then they clapped in the usual manner as in "Shepherd's Hey" or "None So Pretty". After the second "double" they ended facing thus, 1, 2-3, 4-5, 6, Nos. 1 and 6 now being neutral.

The dance continues ad lib.

Stick Dance - they sometimes used sticks instead of clapping.

Sharp remarked that it was apparently very like the morris at Ludlow and White Ladies Aston. This must be in terms of style, not choreography!

I have not seen anyone dance in the style described. The handclapping could include touching the partner or clapping movements from children's games, see the Opie's books, eg "The Singing Game'' Rogue Morris have developed a two stick dance with two varieties of tapping. Shropshire Bedlams and Martha Rhodens Tuppenny Dish have used a handclapping development for their joint show finishing dance called "Old Mother Oxford''.


BRIMFIELD - Herefordshire. col. C Sharp and Leather.

Music : they used any polka, but sometimes schottiches played rather slow.

Sticks : short, about 6 to 8'' long x 11/2" diameter.

Start with four men in a line facing in pairs 1-2, 3-4. Nos, 2 and 3 hold their sticks at the bottom in both hands, resting their hands on the midriff. Nos. 1 and 4 strike these thus held sticks from side to side as in single stick in rhythm with the music for 8 bars. This is "napping".

Then Nos. 1 and 4 dance a "figure of 8", not a hey, around Nos. 2 and 3 who remain in their place marking time. No. 1 passes his partner first by the right and then No. 1 passes before No. 4 in going between Nos. 2 and 3. All call "Ho!" before the start of the figure eight and use plain steps or hopsteps. They follow the same path, 180' out of phase.

Instead of the "figure eight" the dancers can,



Swing in pairs with an arm around the front of the partner's waist.



Do continuous setting to right and left.

This figure is not usually liked today, although some teams have used some alternative steppings



Link arms to swing, first with the rignt and then the left.

I suggested the following order of movements :

Nap/figure 8/nap/set/ /nap/figure 8/nap/arm/ /nap/figure 8/nap/swing/ /.

Dr Cawte says that there was as well a four-hands-across, 4 bars each way, and most teams include this movement today. Typically the ends move in and the middles move out sideways to form the star. With more dancers they danced in a longways formation and the leader called the figures.

The tapping with one stick held stationarv at Brimfield and Much Wenlock has become a characteristic feature of modern Border Morris. The vulgar possibilities inherent in the pose are being exploited in dances such as Shropshire Bedlam's "Maiden's Prayer''. Sometimes the two middle dancers can bend backwards and lean on each other for support.

Most Border Morris sides have a variant of the Brimfield dance. Developments are "The Big Ship'' danced by Shropshire Bedlams, dancing with two sets making a cross as danced by Rogue Morris. and using stepping instead of sticking as danced by Martha Rhodens.

 I suggested that the dancers change places with their partners in one of the turning figures so as to share the battering.

The most extreme development of the Brimfield dance was a conversion to a dance for six from the Paradise Islanders.





Not surprisingly there is more than one way to dance a reel or hey for eight.

The interpretation of collected dance material often depends on nuances of the wording on the assumption that the author actually meant it preciselv. The possibilities to be considered are:



Reel of four, starting facing in pairs, > < > < and passing right shoulders first.



Reel of four, starting by all facing up, < < < < , and Nos. 1 and 3 cast back to their right to pass the dancer behind by the right shoulder's.



Complete progressive reel of four, starting with the top dancer facing down, > < < <, where dancers join in as they are first reached, and the set changes from the order 1 2 3 4 to 4 3 2 1 and back again.



Incomplete progressive reel of four, where the bottom two dancers do not dance the full path, the set changing from the order 1 2 3 4 to 3 4 2 1 and back again.



All the above are reels with three loop figures of eight. It can also be danced as a two looped hey, like a three hand reel. The hey starts with the ends turning in and the middles moving out to go round their nearest end, and dancers pass the centre in turn.


UPTON ON SEVERN - col. M Karpeles and R Kenworthy Schofield.

These two dances have been danced quite widely, and frequently by the Cotswold sides. Some clubs have developed a whole Cotswold like tradition, eg Chingford. and, so I am told, have Stroud women.

Stick Dance

Music : Hornpipes, "Brighton Camp, Yankee Doodle, Keel Row" played in 1925. M. Karpeles chose to publish a Newfoundland jig tune for the dance.

Step : Only Joe Griffen of the side did anything like a systematic footing. He did something approaching a morris step. He held his feet a little distance apart and had his legs very bowed. In the 4/3 step he would swing the free foot across the supporting leg on the 4th.

Figures :

MORRIS - a whole rounds clockwise.

BACK-TO-BACK PASSING RIGHT (or LEFT) - partners dance a single back-to-back in 4 bars, passing right (or left) shoulders first and then dance-in-position for the remaining 4 bars.

THREE TOP - or "middles-to-the-right", Nos 1, 2 and 4 do a hey (reel) for three, No. 4 first passing No.1 by the left. The ends do not turn out to start. Nos 6, 3 and 5 also hey, No.3 first passing No. 6 by the left. The reels are done across the top and the bottom of the set. The middles return to places by going round the corner places.

SIDES - a hey for three on either side, the top couple first passing between the middle couple.

Order of Movements :-

Once-to-yourself - no movement.
Back to-back passing right.
Back-to-back passing left.
Three Top.
Morris and All-in to the centre.

Partners clash their sticks together at the beginning of each evolution rather than at the end.

Because the dance is done so widely it has developed a number of interesting new features, some of which are :

1. Turning the long way, all or just the evens, clockwise, to go into the whole rounds.
2. Putting the stick, sloping down, pointing into the middle for the whole rounds.
3. Holding the back-to-back halfway through before retiring to place.
4. Adding a cross-over-&- back figure, and clashing as partners pass.
5. Dancing a large and wide loop to the left before dancing-in-position.
6. Doubling THREE TOP by adding a ''middles-to- the-left" repeat.
7. Making the loops in the heys wide and coming in where appropriate to being shoulder-to shoulder,

Chorus - between each figure dance "Sticks and Dance in Position"

Partners strike sticks from right to left at the beginning of each bar hitting tips and butts alternately for 8 bars, stepping all the time.
Dancers make a quick whole turn left about (anti-clock) then dance in position facing partners without stick tapping.
I like a "push" forward of the butts and a "chop" of the tips.

Some teams vary the stick clashing, standing still and using,

(a) hitting tips to the left and butts to the right in each bar.
(b) holding the sticks at both ends and clashing the middles of the sticks to form crosses,
(c) hitting tips alternately high and low swinging the stick around anticlockwise, like a windmill.
The newer versions also make the sticking and the loop last 4 bars each and repeat it through again for 16 bars in all.

Emily who had danced in the side, insisted that they had danced with eight. It does not present a problem except for THREE TOPS which become FOUR TOPS, where the upper middles dance a reel of four with the top couple and the lower middles dance with the bottom couple.

Shropshire Bedlams dance their version as "Half a Farthing Candle''. A development for eight has been danced as ''Barley Bree'' by the West Somerset Morris Men.

Handkerchief Dance

Music : jigs ''Bonnets so Blue" was used in 1925.

Step : a sort of running step except when dancing in position when 4/3, 4/2 or ''change, change" was used indiscriminately.

I recommend hopsteps.

Hands : very indefinate, mostly a swing back and forward with a marked upward flick, but other variants were,


Arms swung alternately,


A circular movement in the vertical plane in front of the body made alternately with right hand anticlockwise and left hand clockwise noticeably in the heys,


a figure of eight with both hands moving in parallel directions,


. a "dip-down-and-together" as at Adderbury.

A form of the dance with specific hand movements has now got currency but it owes little to what has been collected. One problem is that it uses hand or arm movements that were not current when the dance was collected!

Order of Movements :-

Once-to-yourself - no movement.
Back-to-back passing right.
Back-to-back passing left.
Three Top - done twice through.
Side. - done twice through.
Nos. 1 and 6 move toward each other and face whilst Nos.2 and 4 face
and 3 and 5 face. This turns the set through 45 deg. Standing thus
dance in position for 8 bars. Now with Nos. 2 and 4 as leaders,
Back-to-back passing right.
Back-to-back passing left.
Three Top - done twice through.
Sides - done twice through.
Morris and All-in, facing the centre.

M Karpeles was not sure if the dance in position should be done only at "corners", or if it should also come before each evolution, as in the stick dance. Without this extra it goes on rather a long time already!

Most sides have found difficulty with the change of orientation in "corners" and there have been many solutions tried. My solution was to combine it with the first of the second set of back-to-backs.

The distinctive THREE TOP movement could be the basis of chorus movements, as half of the evolution could replace a half hey, in a chorus-&-half-hey structure.

EVESHAM - col. by J. Hargreaves.


Own tune "made up" by George Collins of Evesham.

Set :

of ten men, five a side


short, held at bottom, and decorated.


hopsteps, knee raised, foot not kicked forward, perhaps start with the right foot.


Stick Dance

A1 -
Partners hit sticks, all right to left, rhythm /x.x.x.-/
B1 -
Hopstep on the spot facing partner.
A2 -
Hit sticks as Al.
B2 -
Cross over, turn and approach, taking 6 bars, and then hopstep on the spot facing partner for 2 bars, now on opposite's side.
A3 -
Hit sticks as Al.
C -
Transfer the stick to the left hand and the handkerchief to the right and all face round the set to the right so that he sticks are in the middle of the set. Using a hopstep dance on spot for 2 bars then off round the circle anticlockwise waving the handkerchief from the wrist, singing "Fanny Frail". At the end transfer them back again.
A4 -
Hit sticks as Al.


Ad lib from B1.
"Farewell, Farewell, Farewell my Fannv Frail,
for I met my little Sally, at the corner of the alley
With my rump a dump a doodle all a day."

Shropshire Bedlams have added a waist swing to the cross overs, and included a cast down the centre to reverse the set. also with a waist swing to end.

Handkerchief Dance

(I have doubled the length of what is in the MSS )

Music :

"Bonnets So Blue"



Hands :

Low wave for 6 bars like Brackley at low chest level, once to each hopstep, then 2 times down from the wrist, finishing up with 2 circular motions, twists at head level like Headington.


1 - 3

Hopstep facing partner.


9 - 16

Cross Over and Back, complete, track like Brackley Show-out.


17 - 24

Whole Rounds.



Repeat Ad lib.

The dance is too simple and I have not seen it performed outside of a work-shop.

 PERSHORE col. M Karpele.

This is an interesting dance structure, similar to that remembered by villagers at nearby Bidford. It does not match that used by the later team known as the `Pershore Not for Joes, who also had a much larger range of figures.

Set :

Eight men, four a side.

Step :

Hopstep, knee high and no kick forward.

Sticking :

Stick with partners alternately hit tips right to left and butts left to right for the first 4 bars of every S bar phrase. Done vigorously while Hop stepping.

Figures :

All tap sticks at the end of the phrase as well. In the second 4 bars of each phrase they can do:


First, second, and third couples do either half hands or sticks while the bottom couple go up the outside of the set to the top (or the reverse).


Change sides.


Half hey down the sides.


Fairly obviously other such movements could be included. Informants knew there were other figure; but could not remember them. I added figures between ii) and iii) as a) in fours's, diagonals cross and back, b) half round in fours. The mss says hey not weave. In the repeats one can chose whether the bottom or top pair is always the same people or the same people in that place at the time.

A Mr Jones at Pershore told me that they occasionally danced with handkerchiefs for a change. He showed a dance on the spot movement to replace the napping, hopstep with hands doing circles horizontally at head level, and both arms swing together in the figure.



The following is an amalgamation of three collected notations although it is likely that those were a danced on different occasions. One may have come from Pershore.

Set :

Eight to twelve men in two lines,

Music :

A different tune was played for each figure of the dance

Step :

The step throughout the dance was similar to the Flamborough step.

Sticks :

for the stick tapping, or "Napping", and throughout the dance the sticks were held at the bottom end. The stepping L continued throughout the clashing.


The dance starts with once-to-yourself facing partner. Then it begins with a chorus and alternates the chorus with figure, ending; with a chorus.

Chorus :
Straight half hey, single as at Flamborough (sic),
Stick tapping - tap right to left on the first and middle beats.
Half Hey back to place
Stick tapping again.

Figures : assume 8 dancer's.


Nos. 1, 3, 5 change their stick to their left hand and link up with their partners, putting inner arms around the backs of the body and all face up, presumably, and do a whole hey for 4 couples.


Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 dance round a circle clockwise while Nos. 5, 6, 7 and 3 continue stick tapping and stepping on the spot.


Nos. 5, 6, 7 and a dance round clockwise while Nos. 1-4 stick and step.


Cross Over, called "Set", to the other side, turn and face and stick tapping with the partner on the spot, then cross back to own place and turn, stick tapping on the spot with the partner again.


. Processional Up - each couple in turn processes up the middle and back.


Processional Down - the above in reverse.


1st couple moves down to the bottom of the set on the outside of the set, while the rest tap sticks, or the bottom couple goes up the outside to the top.


1st couple leads down the middle, with the rest following and the left hand file turning their partner under their arms, as in Country Dancing.


Partners swing. (Forearm swing. linked elbow, waist or two handed? )


Rounds, going half way round in either direction.


There is no need for the dancers to return to their places for the finish.

Some teams dance the processional two at a time, or accumulating, 2, 4, 6 and then all 8, or after their turn the couples nap together till the end of the figure. Some sides feel uncomfortable with the body contact in figures 1, 8 and 9 and avoid them.

They sang carols and did step dances in between dancing.

Missing from the original set of notations was Peopleton, which I was shown

by M Karpeles in her papers when I met her in 1960.




Set :

A stick dance for four couples (col. Leather) or eight couples (col. Sharp).

Sticks :

short, about 6 to 8" long x 1 1/2" diameter.


Start facing partner. "Nap" strike sticks to rhythm /x.-.x.-./x.x.x,-./ for 16 bars. ie 2 strains.


All face up and evens chassez to the left and odds to the right (odds behind evens?), taking 4 bars across and 4 bars back. Repeat for 16 bars in all, to the second part of tune played twice over.


Nap Again.


Hands across in 4's, holding up the sticks in the disengaged hand. To the right first for 8 bars and then back again to the left for 8 bars.


Repeat ad inf.

In the 1920's there was a team of five, two with sticks 16" long, and one each with triangle, tambourine and melodeon. The first four danced, "in a circle they crossed over, bowed, circled and hit sticks"

Martha Rhodens took the idea, did the star for six and added whole rounds for the figures for "Three Jolly Sheepkins" and "Mad Moll of the Cheshire Hunt". Alton and Hook Eagles have a modern fashion of doing the first 8 bars of napping nearly noiseless and then repeat the opposite.

MUCH WENLOCK - Salop. Karpeles col. from Baden Minton 30.3.37

Music "Not for Joe",

Sticks: 14" Long x 4" circumference and undecorated.

The dance came from Homer a mile away in the 1880's. The old team last came out before WWI. Mr. Minton danced with them. He revived the dancing in 1926. The men were all workmen in the limestone quarries where Minton himself used to work. They used to come out first on Xmas Eve and dance from 8pm until midnight, then on Boxing Day, and sometimes every day afterwards until New Year. It was believed that the dance used to celebrate the birth of Christ.

Costume: any fancy dress was worn, such as that of an Italian clown, a King's Jester, or Sambo the Black. Some dancers dressed up as women. Mr. Minton said that he had introduced this feature. All had black faces. There were no bells.


From five to eight dancers. Always two "standards", ie bones and melodeon players who did not dance.
Four stick dancers, and two with tambourines who dance.
Two stick dancers, and two tambourines, and a triangle player who does not dance.
Two stick dancers, and two with tambourines, but no triangle.
Two stick dancers and a triangle but no tambourines.


On 30.3.37 Mr Minton with his melodeon and three dancers came to the Raven Hotel, Much Wenlock, and showed Miss Karpeles their dance.










Bars :


Partners cross over passing left shoulders and make a half turn right.



Cross back, passing left shoulders again, to places and arm once round with left arms. The tambourines are held up and shaken during the arming. The step during the above a bars is something between a run and a walk. When in the streets the dancers progress slowly in these movements, by making their track slightly diagonal. They are headed by the accordian and the bones players.



Stick tapping. Partners stand still facing each other. The tambourine players beat time and the bones man, who has hitherto been silent, joins in. What the stick dancers do is that the even no's hold their sticks still in a vertical position, whilst the odds hit them alternately from right to left, left to right, tip against tip, 4 times to a bar and twice on the main beats of the last bar. The strikers stick is also held in an almost vertical position and the tapping is done mainly by a movement of the wrist. The above is repeated but the evens hit the odds. The whole dance continues adlib. In "jig" tunes the dancers put in occasional fancy steps such as the cross step and the huckle step but only indeterminately.


Dr Cawte met George Walters on 29.5.57 who joined the side in 1917 and Nick Rowlands on 29 and 30.5.67 who joined in 1897. The dancers originally wore tags of cloth on their ordinary clothes, later the tags were paper, then the cloth changed to fancy dress and finally the tags were abandoned because boy's used to set them alight. The dancer; blackened their faces and their hands and wore top hats. For part of the dance they used a clumsy single shuffle, as for the rapper dance, but it was still a Cross-over and stick tapping only dance.

There is a photo of the team as "Wenlock tells the World" in the Shrewsbury Chronicle for Friday 5th April 1935. The same men performed in 1949 when some were living at Stretton Westwood, see Geoffrey Menham article "Encounters with the morris dance in Shropshire" in ED&S Dec/Jan 1953/4 p 100.

 The concept of two stick men and two musicians has been developed in the "Circle Dances" of the Paradise Islanders and perhaps influenced one of the stunt dances of Seven Champions. There were always rumours of more Much Wenlock figures and many versions have appeared besides those collected by Dave Jones. Some of the more interesting dances have combined the characteristic stick tapping with the Sheepskin Heys in the same dance.


Drum - Pershore

Triangle - Much Wenlock, Leominster, White Ladies Aston.

Tambourines: Much Wenlock, Leominster, White Ladies Aston. Upton on Severn.

Bones : Much Wenlock.